I spent years studying ontology and epistimology (which is what you are discussing I think). Mine can be boiled down to, if I want to eat I need to run this model correctly. Not as interesting as say logical positivism, but it works as you get older.
There are actually two major elements of this dispute traditionally. Positivism versus post-positivism (which deals primarily with the nature of knowledge, but commonly how you achieve it) and how science changes, notably Kuhn's paradigm.
Good luck on this one