Hello, I am new here so forgive me if I seem amateur,

After doing a lot of research and discussion with other students I have continued to find conflicting information about whether the manipulation of variables is or is not required in order for it to be a quasi experimental design.

Can anyone provide some insight on this?


"In quasi-experimental research, the researcher manipulates an independent variable but does not randomly assign participants to conditions or orders of conditions. For example, a researcher might start an antibullying program (a kind of treatment) at one school and compare the incidence of bullying at that school with the incidence at a similar school that has no antibullying program."

http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.co...e_1.0-ch07_s01



"importantly [in a quasi-experiment], the researcher does not randomly assign the participants to the groups; in a sense, Nature does it for the researcher. Because the variable of interest in quasi‐experimental designs is not directly manipulated by the researcher, it is not considered a true independent variable."

https://wikieducator.org/Introductio...ental_Research

I am stuck on a terribly confusing question for an assignment. Any clarification on this issue would be much appreciated. Thank you in advance