# Thread: Test Your Quantitatie Research Design Knowledge

1. ## Test Your Quantitatie Research Design Knowledge

Karsh (1983) designed an experiment on the relationship between early handling and friendliness in cats. She randomly assigned kittens to one of three groups which differed according to the age of first handling. The first group was handled daily from 3 to 14 weeks of age, the second from 7 to 14 weeks of age and the third received no handling from birth to 14 weeks.

Different experimenters handled each kitten on different days. “Handling” was defined as an experimenter holding a kitten on his/her lap while petting it for 15 minutes. Friendliness was measured by how long each kitten stayed with the experimenter when not restrained, and by how long it took each kitten to reach the experimenter.

Karsh found that the kittens handled from 3 to 14 weeks stayed longer with the experimenter and ran more quickly to the experimenter than kittens handled from 7 to 14 weeks. Also, kittens handled from 7 to 14 weeks were more "friendly" than kittens who received no handling at all. Karsh concluded that kittens should be handled as early as possible to ensure life-long friendliness towards humans.

Answer the following questions.

1. What is (are) the Independent Variable(s) and the levels of the IV?

2. What is (are) the Dependent Variable(s)?

3. Describe the possible confound(s) in this experimental design.

4. Describe some suggestions for improving the study’s design.

2. ## Re: Test Your Quantitatie Research Design Knowledge

Could you perhaps tell us your own ideas first? What would be your answers?

With kind regards

Karabiner

3. ## Re: Test Your Quantitatie Research Design Knowledge

You need to put forth some effort on your own part, before people will just answer questions for you. Do you know what an IV or DV is?

4. ## Re: Test Your Quantitatie Research Design Knowledge

Yeah I do, I'm more confused about what the possible range and points of improvements to future designs and the confounds apparent. Thinking that something is wrong with the nominal scale used between group, they differ in weeks?

Briefly state the null hypothesis
The null hypothesis apparent within this study would inform that there is no difference between early handling among age and friendliness in cats.

Briefly state the alternative hypothesis
The alternative hypothesis states that there is a significant correlation or statistically significant association between the two identified variables, where early handling among varying ages and friendliness in cats is correlated.

What is (are) the Independent Variable(s) and the levels of the IV?
The independent variables are the measurements used to determine the friendliness in cats. These involve the time the cat stayed with the experimenter when not restrained and the duration each kitten took to approach the experimenter.

What is (are) the Dependent Variable(s)?
The dependent variable is the age of first handling among the three groups and the petting time which remained fixed at 15minutes among all three groups.

Describe the possible confound(s) in this experimental design
By measuring the effect that differing onset of affection towards cats has on their friendliness, the researcher has introduced a confounding variable by not controlling or accounting for the varying ages of the kittens. While Karsh (1983) did account for the age of first handling, the random assignment of the kittens induced variances amongst their ages. Further confounds can be observed in the different experimenters who handled the kittens on alternating days. This presents a confound as no two experimenters may have handled the kittens in the same way. The breed as well as the background of each kitten may also have had an effect on the friendliness, as some cats may exhibit different temperaments or were sourced from different environments where early treatment or maternal conditioning may have influenced their friendliness. The time of day the petting occurred also may have been controlled, as friendliness may be different depending on when the kitten woke up and energy levels around wake and sleep times.

The timescale referring to the age of onset for first handling differed and was unequal among the three groups, prohibiting a ration measurement scale between them. Since variances remained unequal between-group early handling times, the results don’t represent a ration measurement scale.

6. Describe some suggestions for improving the study’s design

The researcher could have included a control group that addressed the identified confounds to determine whether the magnitude or if the extent to which they actually had an effect. Rather than undergo the process to select kittens from the same litter or similar background the experiment should have measured the subjects (kittens) from the time of birth, so that all participants were equally measured and reduce the implications of varying age, a distinct maturation confound. This would have reduced confounding variables related to past-treatment, maternal conditioning and environmental influences. Other control groups could have been incorporated such as grouping same breeds rather than allocating mixed-breed groups through the randomized sampling sought. This could effectively mitigate other more epigenetic and genetic variances in cross-breed temperaments. This could be achieved by selecting a matched pairs design in which the kittens are matched based on the variables that have an effect on the dependent variable. The experimenter should have controlled as much as practicable, any external or environmental factors that were present during the petting times including distractions, people, time of day and other confounding variables mentioned. This may have involved placing kittens in isolation with the experimenter during the 15minute petting.

Is there anything you would add that I have missed?????

5. ## Re: Test Your Quantitatie Research Design Knowledge

Yeah I do, I'm more confused about what the possible range and points of improvements to future designs and the confounds apparent. Thinking that something is wrong with the nominal scale used between group, they differ in weeks?

Briefly state the null hypothesis
The null hypothesis apparent within this study would inform that there is no difference between early handling among age and friendliness in cats.

Briefly state the alternative hypothesis
The alternative hypothesis states that there is a significant correlation or statistically significant association between the two identified variables, where early handling among varying ages and friendliness in cats is correlated.

What is (are) the Independent Variable(s) and the levels of the IV?
The independent variables are the measurements used to determine the friendliness in cats. These involve the time the cat stayed with the experimenter when not restrained and the duration each kitten took to approach the experimenter.

What is (are) the Dependent Variable(s)?
The dependent variable is the age of first handling among the three groups and the petting time which remained fixed at 15minutes among all three groups.

Describe the possible confound(s) in this experimental design
By measuring the effect that differing onset of affection towards cats has on their friendliness, the researcher has introduced a confounding variable by not controlling or accounting for the varying ages of the kittens. While Karsh (1983) did account for the age of first handling, the random assignment of the kittens induced variances amongst their ages. Further confounds can be observed in the different experimenters who handled the kittens on alternating days. This presents a confound as no two experimenters may have handled the kittens in the same way. The breed as well as the background of each kitten may also have had an effect on the friendliness, as some cats may exhibit different temperaments or were sourced from different environments where early treatment or maternal conditioning may have influenced their friendliness. The time of day the petting occurred also may have been controlled, as friendliness may be different depending on when the kitten woke up and energy levels around wake and sleep times.

The timescale referring to the age of onset for first handling differed and was unequal among the three groups, prohibiting a ration measurement scale between them. Since variances remained unequal between-group early handling times, the results don’t represent a ration measurement scale.

6. Describe some suggestions for improving the study’s design
The researcher could have included a control group that addressed the identified confounds to determine whether the magnitude or if the extent to which they actually had an effect. Rather than undergo the process to select kittens from the same litter or similar background the experiment should have measured the subjects (kittens) from the time of birth, so that all participants were equally measured and reduce the implications of varying age, a distinct maturation confound. This would have reduced confounding variables related to past-treatment, maternal conditioning and environmental influences. Other control groups could have been incorporated such as grouping same breeds rather than allocating mixed-breed groups through the randomized sampling sought. This could effectively mitigate other more epigenetic and genetic variances in cross-breed temperaments. This could be achieved by selecting a matched pairs design in which the kittens are matched based on the variables that have an effect on the dependent variable. The experimenter should have controlled as much as practicable, any external or environmental factors that were present during the petting times including distractions, people, time of day and other confounding variables mentioned. This may have involved placing kittens in isolation with the experimenter during the 15minute petting.

Is there anything you would add that I have missed?????

6. ## Re: Test Your Quantitatie Research Design Knowledge

Originally Posted by Karabiner
Could you perhaps tell us your own ideas first? What would be your answers?

With kind regards

Karabiner
Describe the possible confound(s) in this experimental design
By measuring the effect that differing onset of affection towards cats has on their friendliness, the researcher has introduced a confounding variable by not controlling or accounting for the varying ages of the kittens. While Karsh (1983) did account for the age of first handling, the random assignment of the kittens induced variances amongst their ages. Further confounds can be observed in the different experimenters who handled the kittens on alternating days. This presents a confound as no two experimenters may have handled the kittens in the same way. The breed as well as the background of each kitten may also have had an effect on the friendliness, as some cats may exhibit different temperaments or were sourced from different environments where early treatment or maternal conditioning may have influenced their friendliness. The time of day the petting occurred also may have been controlled, as friendliness may be different depending on when the kitten woke up and energy levels around wake and sleep times.

The timescale referring to the age of onset for first handling differed and was unequal among the three groups, prohibiting a ration measurement scale between them. Since variances remained unequal between-group early handling times, the results don’t represent a ration measurement scale.

6. Describe some suggestions for improving the study’s design
The researcher could have included a control group that addressed the identified confounds to determine whether the magnitude or if the extent to which they actually had an effect. Rather than undergo the process to select kittens from the same litter or similar background the experiment should have measured the subjects (kittens) from the time of birth, so that all participants were equally measured and reduce the implications of varying age, a distinct maturation confound. This would have reduced confounding variables related to past-treatment, maternal conditioning and environmental influences. Other control groups could have been incorporated such as grouping same breeds rather than allocating mixed-breed groups through the randomized sampling sought. This could effectively mitigate other more epigenetic and genetic variances in cross-breed temperaments. This could be achieved by selecting a matched pairs design in which the kittens are matched based on the variables that have an effect on the dependent variable. The experimenter should have controlled as much as practicable, any external or environmental factors that were present during the petting times including distractions, people, time of day and other confounding variables mentioned. This may have involved placing kittens in isolation with the experimenter during the 15minute petting.

Is there anything you would add that I have missed?????

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