Differentiating between different distributions

In my last 3 statistics classes I have learned about several different kinds of distributions:

the binomial probability distribution
the normal probability distribution
sampling distributions

I am findng it difficult absorbing all this information regarding distributions at once and have not yet come across a book which attempts to differentiate between these different types of distributions. I would greatly appreciate advice regarding any/ all of the following:

key differences of the distributions
how calculations dealing with the different distributions differ

Thanks in advance.