*Quick overview of my my experiment:*- I investigated 2 methods of using worked examples to study the division & multiplication of fractions in 2 year 7 classrooms, using a pretest, a practice session & a posttest, in addition to a mental effort/perceived difficulty measure (Likert scale).

F

*ading Method:*

Solution steps gradually get omitted, so students received:

(1) Worked Examples (WE) on Multiplication of Fractions (3 steps)

(2) similar problem with 3rd step to-be-solved

(3) similar problem with 2nd & 3rd step to-be-solved

(4) similar problem to be solved entirely

(5) WE on Division of Fractions (3 steps)

(6) similar problem... (same fading procedure)

(7) similar problem...

(8) similar problem...

--> students solve 12 solution steps in total

*Interleaved Example-Problem Condition*:

(1) WE on Multiplication (3 steps)

(2) Problem to-be-solved (all 3 steps)

(3) WE on Multiplication

(4) Problem to-be-solved

(5) WE on Division

(6) Problem to-be-solved

(7) WE on Division

(8) Problem to-be-solved

--> students also solve 12 steps in total, max. score = 12 ( 1 point per step)

*Variables*:

- experimental group (Fading & Interleaved)

- Pretest score (per question & total)

- Practice session: proportion of correctly answered step 1, 2, & 3 questions, number of total errors & total score (not in proportion format)

- Posttest score (per question & total)

- Mental Effort & Perceived Difficulty scores per participant for pretest, practice session & posttest.

- Pretest & Posttest were comprised of 4 questions (2 on x & 2 on , each scored out of 3 (because in practice condition the problems are broken down into 3 steps aswell), max. score 12.

- Mental Effort & Perceived Difficulty measured on 5-point Likert scale after pretest, practice session, & posttest.

*:*

**Analyses I carried out**> 2-sample t-test to see if conditions were comparable at pretest --> Levene's test sig. for 2 questions so I carried out a mann-whitney U test (not sig., so condition were comparable)

> within-subjects comparison (t-test) to see if sample as whole made progress from pre- to posttest (sig.)

> between-subjects comparison to check if proportion of correct answers to step 1, 2 & 3, respectively, were different. Levene's test sig. for proportion correct of step 1, so I conducted a Mann-Whitney U test again (sig., fading group scored lower)

> between-subjects comparison of total score (not sig.) & no. of errors (not sig.)

> between-subjects comparison of posttest performance (t-test)

> ANOVA for Likert scale items with experimental condition as between-subjects factor (not sig.)

> Mann-Whitney U test for Likert scale items (unsure why I did both tests...)

I would be immensely grateful for any feedback !!!

Kind regards, Fran