Here are the questions (true/false or multiple choice):

A study reported the examination marks obtained by 3rd year medical students at Flinders University (Australia). Different groups spent the whole of the 3rd year at either a tertiary teaching hospital in Adelaide, or a regional secondary referral hospital in Darwin, or in a rural community programme. Students were assigned to the rural programme on the basis of interest and intended career pathway. The end-of-year examination was the same for all students, consisting of a mixture of MCQs, modified essay questions, short notes answer, OSCEs etc (B. Med. J. Jan. 24th 2004). Over a 5-year period the following results were obtained:

Number of students by:

Adelaide Darwin Rural

Sex Male 159 37 17

Female 104 31 23

Age <= 24 89 26 12

25-29 112 27 14

30-34 33 7 5

>= 35 29 8 9

Mean mark (%) 65.2 68.2 69.3

S.D. (%) 4.9 6.3 6.6

To make the following comparisons, the most appropriate statistical method to use is (mark either A, B,C or D in each row):

A. Regression B. Two-sample t-test C. Chi-squared D. Correlation

26. Comparing the sites for equality of sex distribution

27. Comparing the sites for equality of age distribution

28. Comparing mean marks only between Adelaide and rural

A statistical test on the sex distribution (Adelaide vs. rural) reported that

p = 0.44. This means that (true or false):

29. There is a 44% chance that the sex distribution of the two groups are different

30. The null hypothesis is wrong

31. The null hypothesis is correct

32. If the null hypothesis is true, the chance of getting results like this, or more extreme, is 0.44 (44%)

33. If the null hypothesis is false, the chance of getting results like this, or more extreme, is 0.56 (56%)

A statistical test comparing the age distribution (Adelaide vs. rural) reported that p = 0.88. This means that (true or false):

34. The results for age are twice as likely to be correct as those for sex

35. The results for age accord more closely with the null hypothesis than do those for sex

36. In practice, there is no meaningful difference between the age distributions

A statistical test on the marks obtained by the Adelaide and rural groups concluded that there was a significant difference, p<0.001. This shows that (true or false):

37. Being taught in a tertiary referral centre is associated with higher marks in the exam

38. All students should in future be taught in a rural, community setting

39. Differences between the students not reported above could explain the

difference in exam results

40. A better estimate of the effect of teaching/learning in different settings could have been obtained by randomly allocating students to the different locations

Any help will be greatly appreciated!