May I ask what are the considerations in making statistical inference?

I have the following ideas in my mind, but I am not sure what are really the necessary considerations:

• random sample from the population of interest

• performance of experiment in accordance with certain principles

• obtains some data (measurements or observations)

• knowledge of random variables and their probability distributions to make theoretical models of populations

• needs probability model that is based on the assumption that observations contain random variation

• degree of uncertainty of making statistical inference measured in terms of probability

• choosing appropriate statistical test

I have the following ideas in my mind, but I am not sure what are really the necessary considerations:

• random sample from the population of interest

• performance of experiment in accordance with certain principles

• obtains some data (measurements or observations)

• knowledge of random variables and their probability distributions to make theoretical models of populations

• needs probability model that is based on the assumption that observations contain random variation

• degree of uncertainty of making statistical inference measured in terms of probability

• choosing appropriate statistical test

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