Making statistical inference considerations

May I ask what are the considerations in making statistical inference?

I have the following ideas in my mind, but I am not sure what are really the necessary considerations:

• random sample from the population of interest
• performance of experiment in accordance with certain principles
• obtains some data (measurements or observations)
• knowledge of random variables and their probability distributions to make theoretical models of populations
• needs probability model that is based on the assumption that observations contain random variation
• degree of uncertainty of making statistical inference measured in terms of probability
• choosing appropriate statistical test
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