SOS-Where to begin on this complex data set and what Stat Model to use?

Hi Everyone,

This is my first time EVER posting anything on the web for help, so here it goes.

Recently I applied for a job and they sent me over this complex data set as part of the interview process. Of course I failed miserably and tried everything I could with excel. I would like to know how to begin to approach these problems if anyone can help. I have attached the prompt and tried to attach the data sets (.csv files) but they were too large for this forum, so I instead attached a screenshot showing what I could.

I am under the notion that there should be some statistical model that is a plug-in for excel that will make predictions with standard deviation, but I do not know how or where to begin. Please help.

Good luck and thanks in advance!