You are mixing terms, not sure if it is intentional or not. Incidence (also prevalence) are calculated differently than odds. However, there is the rare disease assumption that states the Odds Ratio can be a proxy for Relative Risk if outcome is rare (<10%).

Are you talking about just applying the numbers (risk) to the population? If so, the biggest questions you have to ask is what was the study design and sample scheme used to get data and results. Were the observations randomly sampled from the population? If not, direct application may be problematic. Also, could there be any systematic errors in the collection of sample or data (e.g., could people miss-report exposures and outcomes, etc.).