1. R

    PCA (correlation) Biplot - correlation and angles

    Hi, I have a question regarding a PCA correlation Biplot. As far as I understand, angles between lines are (approx.) correlations between corresponding variables. Especially, if the angle is about 90° between two lines, these two variables are uncorrelated. But how does the plot look like if...
  2. Y

    Basic question: is the std of complex numbers the std of its components?

    Sorry for the basic question, I searched the internet but could not get a simple and clear answer. Application: I want to compute the std of a direction / bearing , values are from 0-360. I can convert the values into complex numbers and back to have a proper average. Question: Can I...
  3. D

    Analysing circular (angular) data - how to find significant differences?

    Dear users, this is a problem from my PhD thesis. I am grateful for suggestions. I have measured angular data from several individuals, each specimen only once. This data is clustered in 5° from 1-180°. No angle above 180° are recorded. I have calculated the frequency of angles for each...