I'm working on a project, which in part looks at whether the same whales are seen together more often than would be expected by random chance. Looking through my text book I thought the Chi Square sounded like an appropriate test. (The book says it's an r x c contingency table).

I am working in Excel. I've made a table with the whale names as row and column headings, and within the table how many times they meet. So, for example, following the column for Whale A and the row for Whale B shows you the frequency of their meetings. (I hope this makes sense).

I did the chi square manually following my text book. So I calculated the expected frequencies using (column total x row total) / grand total.

Next I made another copy of the table with the results of (O-E)^2/E (O = actual frequency and E = expected frequency).

Then I have totalled up the results of this table to give 692.48.

I also calculated the degrees of freedom, as (rows-1)x(columns-1). I have 32 different whales, so I calculated that as 31 x 31 = 961.

This is a very high number and I cant find so many degrees of freedom in any table of critical values, which made me think I've done something wrong or maybe I've used the wrong test.

Most of the frequencies are 0 or 1. Some whale pairs met up to 8 times, so I'm trying to show that this is significantly higher than the others (or maybe it isn't...)

So if anyone can help guide me to the right path, thank you. And thank you for reading about my problem! ^ ^;;