Reporting Degrees of Freedom from SPSS output


New Member
Hello there

Is there a simple rule to follow, in order to know which of the numbers in the df column to report on, when looking for the df? I have looked in my two textbooks and online, but it is not clear to me.

Help appreciated.

Thank you



No. It depends on the test and what you're reporting. One book that I may suggest to help guide you is Andy Field's SPSS guide. it costs some bucks but it's a great handbook to have and in my opinion an interesting read. Great mix of beginning theory and SPSS usage. I bought his R version and love it.

Now if you have a specific questions about specific tests/output and a specific research question you're answering we can guide you. You can also study what degrees of freedom are (though this topic's complete lucidity eludes me). Certain tests have expected DF based on the number of parameters estimated. You shouldn't need need the SPSS handout to figure out the DF if you begin to get aquanted with how many degrees of freedom a test eats up.


New Member
Thank you very much for replying. I am learning about t-tests and ANOVAs, and finding the SPSS output quite a challenge to decipher!

I actually already own that book, so I will have a look tonight (in time for my test tomorrow!).