**Statistics Rap Song (Beyond Average) **
by MC SKULE

MC "SKULE" (Spreading Knowledge Using Lyrics & Entertainment)'s debut

Music Video. This song describes, what "Sigma" and "Z-Score" really mean,

and how finding the "Average", while easy, is not enough in statistics.
Do you find yourself asking, What is the point of stats?

Is the time spent learning it worth it just to pass a class?

Well there’s this thing called data, it has characteristics

And making data make sense is the power of statistics

See a long list of numbers, is nice but not quite useful

What we need is to find a way to only focus on what’s crucial

And here’s where you might think; let me just find the average

Well that’s a great start, knowing the mean is an advantage

Compared to just raw data, the mean does us wonders

But relying on just the mean would be quite a blunder

[Chorus] To Be Beyond Average You should go beyond the average

Standard Deviation is something you should want to manage

And calculating Z score might be a chore like cleaning

But I bet you’ll wanna know more when you understand its meaning

You have 2 groups of people, and want to know their ages

So the groups write their ages one by one, on 2 separate pages

Now everyone in group 1, is 20 years old

Which makes their average age 20, lo and behold

Group 2 has a different story, cuz half of the people are 10

But the other half are 30, So the average is 20 again

These 2 groups are quite different, that’s what we want to claim

But just looking at averages, we saw they were the same

Now let’s make a new friend sigma, or standard deviation

It’s a tool that’ll help us make sense of this little complication

It measures how far the average is from each individual

The formula looks scary but applying it is really cool

And the gist of it really is how spread out the numbers are

Which means sigma is higher when all the numbers are really far

So group 2 has a high sigma, and group 1’s is actually zero

And if you can now see why that’s true you’re a sigma super-hero

[Chorus]

Suppose you’ve made a painting, that you’re looking to sell

The mean price is $200, but your painting’s rather swell

So yours will be above the mean, that’s something you can tell

You sold yours for $250, so it seems like you’ve done well $50 above average, so you’re feeling content

But you wonder if your painting was in the top 1 percent

Is 50 above average, really all that high?

Well that depends on whether other prices are nearby

So what we need to quantify is how prices are spread out

But we already have that - sigma without a doubt

So now how many sigmas, above the mean are we?

There’s actually a name for that value: it’s called Z!

So let’s recap what Z score means, the name might seem bizarre

But all it says is how many sigmas from the mean we are

So if sigma is 50, well then that tells us a ton

We’re one sigma above average, so our Z score would be 1

Let’s say you did the math, and found your sigma to be 10

You’re 5 sigmas above average, so the Z is 5 then

The cool thing about Z is that it has its own table

Which lets us solve problems we were previously unable

You’re in the top 1 percent if Z is 2.3 or more

And since our Z is 5 we’re in the 1% for sure

I hope you now can see how to come to this conclusion

And that sigma and Z are no longer a confusion

Don’t get caught up in details, just see the broader vision

Use stats in your life to make better decisions