What tests to use for analyzing data that is categorical and continuous

Hey everyone,

for my master thesis, I'm analyzing a bunch of patient data. I have very limited statistical experience hence the question here.
The data set includes both categorical variables and continuous variables. the continuous variables don't seem to be normally distributed. additionally, these measures from the continuous variables are from a patient group and there is no data available on those specific variables in a healthy control group.
What would be the best way to analyze this data? the goal is to compare and correlate all variables. But would it be best to first transform the continuous variables into categorical data? If so how to do this without having normalized data? Or could I use the categorical variables to predict the continuous data?
Many thanks for the help and i can give more info if needed!